Fremantle Prison, sometimes referred to as Fremantle Gaol or Fremantle Jail, is a former prison and World Heritage Site in Fremantle, Western Australia.
The six-hectare (15-acre) site includes the prison cellblocks, gatehouse, perimeter walls, cottages, and tunnels. It was initially used for conicts transported from Britain, but was transferred to the colonial government in 1886 for use for locally-sentenced prisoners.
Royal Commissions were held in 1898 and 1911, and instigated some reform to the prison system, but significant changes did not begin until the 1960s. The government department in charge of the prison underwent several reorganisations in the 1970s and 1980s, but the culture of Fremantle Prison was resistant to change.
Growing prisoner discontent culminated in a 1988 riot with guards taken hostage, and a fire that caused $1.8 million worth of damage.
The prison closed in 1991, replaced by the new maximum-security Casuarina Prison.